5. Conclusions

This study suggests that completing the P-5 Mathematics Endorsement resulted in the following impacts.

The teachers' mathematics content knowledge increased.

The teachers' practices changed to better reflect the standards-based instructional model explicit in the K-5 mathematics GPS.

The teachers developed higher expectations for students' ability to learn sophisticated grade-level appropriate mathematics.

Many of the teachers assumed new leadership roles in their schools' mathematics programs.

Student engagement in mathematics learning increased through increased thinking, talking, and writing about mathematics.

Contextual factors affecting successful implementation of the classes included making modifications due to institutional barriers, addressing teacher perceptions of relevance, and providing incentives.

Contextual factors affecting implementation in the classroom include state, school, and individual influences.