P-5 Mathematics Endorsement: Impact and Lessons Learned
Authors: Linda Gilbert, Michael Hughes, Kathy Miller

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4. Results
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Analysis of the data indicated the course takers developed new content knowledge and changed their teaching practice. That analysis also suggested the course takers increased the level of student engagement in their mathematics lessons, changed their beliefs about the capabilities of students, and became mathematics leaders in their schools.

The pre and post content assessments were administered by the regional evaluation liaison and scored, using the appropriate TIMMS or NAEP scoring guidelines, by the internal PRISM evaluator. A paired-sample t-test was used to test whether there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the mean scores on each assessment. For all courses, there was a statistically significant difference in pre and post test scores. These findings were supported by the questionnaire administered to the first two cohorts, which indicated that they felt they had increased both their math content knowledge and their ability to help students

Teachers also changed practices. Interviews with instructors and the focus group with teachers identified a range of practices that teachers said they now used. These practices were confirmed in observations.